2019 CSCE Annual Conference - Laval (Greater Montreal) Conference
Dr. Arash Shahi, University of Toronto (Presenter)
Dr. Brenda McCabe, University of Toronto
Mr. Paul De Berardis, Residential Construction Council of Ontario
Mr. Michael de Lint, Residential Construction Council of Ontario
As governing bodies attempt to reach ambitious GHG goals, urban development is being increasingly regulated to improve energy efficiency and ensure long-term sustainability of the built infrastructure. With the growing popularity of tall buildings in dense urban centres and the demands for net-zero energy buildings, the Window-to-Wall Ratio (WWR) of these buildings is seen as a low-hanging fruit to help reduce energy loads, leading to stricter prescriptive WWR regulations. In this paper, a critical review of the WWR regulations for tall residential buildings in the city of Toronto, with one of the highest urban development rates in North America, is presented, which included the examination of 283 tall towers. Instead of relying solely on WWR, this research introduces the effective WWR (EWWR) as an additional occupant-focused measure of the window area of tall buildings, which considers the occupant’s living experience in tall towers. Finally, alternative passive solutions are presented, which can provide a balance between energy performance and livability in tall towers without reducing the WWR.